OAI12 Sessions: Scholarly publishing

OAI12 Session 1

Scholarly Publishing

Chaired by Martyn Rittman and Marco Tullney

Scholarly publishing is highly diverse and constantly changing. Over the previous decades it has responded to a number of large challenges on the global and local levels. In this session we aim to take a snapshot of the current status of the industry with a global perspective and explore emerging models of open publishing. Which open access strategies can work together, and which lead to conflict? How do we value the diversity of models, and where do we need clear and more uniform strategies? What challenges do scholar-led, community-owned publishing initiatives face? What impact can we expect from transformative agreements and other big deals in the different regions of the world? Are the Plan S principles applicable worldwide, are they necessary or sufficient? How sustainable are existing open access strategies and business models?

Monday 06 Sept. 2021

All dates and times are Central European Summer Time (CEST)

Scholarly Publishing 06 Sep 2021
10:00 - 10:30

Funding the future: the role of diamond in sustainable, full and fair open access

In 2020, cOAlition S commissioned a study to gain insights into the OA publishing landscape of diamond journals and platforms, which are free to readers and authors. The research, conducted by a group of 10 organizations lead by OPERAS, aggregated data from an online survey that gathered around 1600 responses from journal editors across the globe, a quantitative analysis of data from bibliographical databases and a qualitative analysis based on focus groups of journal editors and interviews with infrastructure providers.

The findings of the study point to a wide archipelago of relatively small journals serving diverse communities, with a mix of scientific strengths and operational challenges (including compliance with funder mandates) and an economy that is characterized by a large dependency on volunteers, universities and governments, modest publishing costs and a variety of funding models.

In this presentation, we will discuss the various recommendations of the study to increase the capacity of community-driven/governed journals and platforms, connecting them and technically supporting them in a coordinated way. We call upon funders to consistently finance the operations of diamond journals and platforms and invest in the future of diamond OA.

We connect this plea for support for diamond open access to the bigger theme of the conference by suggesting some concrete ways towards full and fair open access based on a much larger role of diamond.

10:30 - 11:00

China's ambitious plan to establish world-class STM journals

Two years ago, China triggered an “Excellence Action Plan” to help China-based STM journals further enhance their international impact. In 2019, 20 journals were selected as "leading journals" and will be charged with the goal of ranking among the world’s top STM journals within 5 years. Besides those, 30 "key journals" and 200 "emerging journals" were selected to improve international editorial practices, service capabilities, international communication, etc. Furthermore, for each year between 2019 and 2023, China will choose and launch 30 new titles as “high potential journals” based on China’s priority research fields. This presentation will introduce more details and some achievements of this ambitious plan.

11:00 - 11:30

Le développement des presses universitaires sénégalaises : enjeux et perspectives pour un envol de l’Open Acces au Sénégal - Development of Senegalese university presses: issues and perspectives for development of Open Access in Senegal

Les établissements d’enseignement supérieur jouent un rôle primordial dans le développement socio-économique en raison de leur triple mission : (1) assurer la formation aux études supérieures d’une portion de plus en plus large de la population, (2) promouvoir la Recherche scientifique et (3) réaliser des services à la communauté. C’est dans un tel contexte que l’Etat du Sénégal a décidé, en 2000, d’octroyer des moyens substantiels à l’Education en général et à l’Enseignement Supérieur en particulier par un financement public de près de 11 % du budget national alors que la moyenne africaine se situe actuellement autour 3,8%.
Ce dernier axe a été renforcé par la signature du Projet de Gouvernance et de Financement de l’Enseignement Supérieur axé sur les résultats (PGF-Sup), entre le gouvernement du Sénégal et la Banque Mondiale, en mai 2011 Le PGF-Sup a été financé à hauteur de 50,6 milliards FCFA (101.3 millions USD). Le Gouvernement du Sénégal a affecté à la sous-composante « financement basé sur des contrats de performance » la somme de 21,5 milliards FCFA (43 millions USD).

Toutefois, au bout des quatre années d’exécution du contrat de performance, les universités sénégalaises n’ont pas atteint l’indicateur de « publication de manuels et de fascicules » par le Personnel d’Enseignement et de Recherche (PER). L’activité d’Enseignement semble ainsi prendre le dessus, au sein du campus universitaire, sur celle de la Recherche et de la publication scientifique malgré l’accent mis par la réforme LMD (Licence-Master-Doctorat) sur l’importance de la documentation scientifique dans les syllabi de cours (bibliographie obligatoire) et les Travaux Personnels des Etudiants (TPE). Pourtant dans le paysage editorial on eu : Les presses universitaires de Dakar PUD mises en place par l’arrêté rectoral n° 626 du 2 Septembre 1991 La Direction des Presses universitaires de Saint Louis (PUS) créés en 2007 Université SAHEL en 2000. Création et missions des PUB en mars 2015. 4 presses sur 12 universités. Soit 0.33 pour cent.

Les PUB constituent un support institutionnel pour la valorisation de la Recherche et pour l’édition et la diffusion des travaux scientifiques et didactiques. Un règlement intérieur précise le fonctionnement pratique des PUB. Les pub ont lancé un appel à candidature et a reçu près de 25 demande de publications au bout des procédures de publication, A Bambey par exemple : on a retenu 14 publications mais malgré tous les efforts et un voyage de mise à niveau du président du conseil scientifique et du secrétaire administratif, les choses sont restées au point l’université n’a pas les moyens de publier les ouvrages des enseignants. Réel problématique, les services de l’état sollicités n’ont pas pu aussi faire face. Que faire farce à ce problème de manque de moyens ? Peut-on laisser les enseignants se faire publier ailleurs, En Europe par exemple, quel genres de stratégies peut-on mettre en place pour un circuit d’édition e faveur de la recherche au Sénégal et qui favorise le libre accès?

Higher education institutions play a primary role in socio-economic development due to their three-fold mission: (1) Providing advanced training and education to an increasing proportion of the population, (2) promoting scientific research, (3) providing services to the wider community. In this context, in the year 2000 Senegal decided to grant a significant means of education in general, and higher education in particular, through public financing close to 11% of the national budget, which compares to an average acros Africa of around 3.8%. This was reinforced by Project for Governance and Finance of Higher Education based on results (PGF-Sup), signed between the senegalese government and the World Bank in May 2011. The PGF-Sup was supported financially with 50.6 billion FCFA (101.3 million USD). The Government of Senegal has allocated the sum of CFAF 21.5 billion (USD 43 million) to the “financing based on performance contracts” sub-component.

However, at the end of the four years of performance of the performance contract, Senegalese universities have not achieved the aim of "publication of textbooks and booklets" by teaching and research staff (PER). Teaching therefore seems to have a higher priority on university campuses, above that of research and scientific publication, despite the emphasis placed by the LMD (Masters and Doctoral training) reform on the importance of scientific documentation in course syllabi and the work of students (TPE).

Meanwhile, on the editorial side:

The Dakar PUD university press was set up by rectoral decree No. 626 of September 2, 1991. The University Press of Saint Louis (PUS) was created in 2007, and for SAHEL University in 2000. The creation and mission of PUB was established in March 2015.

In other words, 4 presses in 12 universities: 33 percent.

PUBs provides institutional support for the promotion of research and for the publication and dissemination of scientific and didactic work. Internal regulations specify the functions of PUBs. A call for applications received nearly 25 requests which are ready for publication.

In Bambey, for example: we have retained 14 publications. Despite these efforts and a visit to request support from the president of the scientific council and the administrative secretary, things have remained at this point and the university does not have the means to publish the teachers' books.

This is very problematic, and the national agencies to which requests have been made have not been able to respond. What can we do about this lack of resources? Should we let teachers publish elsewhere, in Europe for example, and what kind of strategies can we put in place for a publishing operation that favors research in Senegal and promotes open access?

11:30 - 12:00

Coffee break and Music

12:00 - 12:30

‘Scaling Small’: A strategy to support scholar-led, open access book publishing

Open access (OA) book publishing is undergoing a period of transition. While scholar-led presses have long been at the forefront of OA book publishing, developing innovative business models and publication workflows and advocating for a broader shift to OA, larger commercial and university presses are now beginning to take OA books seriously. Community-led approaches such as the ScholarLed consortium and the Radical Open Access Collective may be threatened by the emergent trend towards 'big deals' and 'transformative' agreements in the OA book world, through which institutions and authors are encouraged to support only the ‘big players’ with money or manuscripts, potentially leaving smaller and academic-led presses out in the cold (e.g. see https://group.springernature.com/gp/group/media/press-releases/new-open-access-book-partnership-with-uc-berkeley-library/18993926).

The ‘scaling small’ approach (see Adema & Moore, 2021, https://doi.org/10.16997/wpcc.918) offers one alternative to this monopolistic vision, focusing on collaboration between smaller, academic-led and non-profit entities to build systems and infrastructures that provide mutual support at multiple scales. This ‘scaling small’ philosophy is being put powerfully to work by the Community-led Open Publication Infrastructures for Monographs (COPIM) project, a major three-year international project bringing together libraries, scholar-led OA publishers, researchers, and infrastructure providers to build open, non-profit, community-governed infrastructures to expand the publication of OA books.

COPIM, which includes members of both ScholarLed and the Radical Open Access Collective, is developing platforms and partnerships to address key technological, structural, and organisational hurdles around the funding, production, dissemination, discovery, reuse, and archiving of OA books. The project thus aims to build the structures that can sustain a diverse, scholar-led, not-for-profit OA publishing ecosystem according to the principle of ‘scaling small’. We are approaching the halfway point of our project and this paper will share insights into our progress so far, together with our plans for the next phase of our work, outlining how COPIM is putting ‘scaling small’ into action.

This includes:

1) a non-profit, community-governed platform to facilitate the exchange of information and funding between libraries, OA book publishers, researchers and the wider public; 2) Opening the Future, a business model enabling the transition of legacy publishers to a non-BPC (book processing charge) OA business model; 3) the study and development of appropriate and robust governance models for non-profit, community-owned infrastructures; 4) Thoth, an open-source OA book metadata creation and dissemination system and service; 5) a report, toolset and use cases exploring the field of experimental book publishing practices, including a review of open-source tools and platforms; 6) technical and legal solutions to effectively archive and preserve complex digital research publications.

This paper will lay out these developments and the philosophy of the project as a whole, giving attendees at OAI 2021 valuable insight into a major new initiative supporting scholar-led OA for books. As Adema and Moore (2021) argue (building on the work of Anna Tsing): ‘scaling small’ can ‘be perceived “as a way to reconceptualize the world – and perhaps rebuild it”’.

See also: https://scholarled.org/ http://radicaloa.disruptivemedia.org.uk/ https://www.copim.ac.uk/ https://copim.pubpub.org/

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